Why Is Public Finance Management So Important To Development?

In response to the Paris Declaration (2005) and the Accra Agenda (2008) leading to commitments for donors to channel more of their aid to developing countries through country systems, there has been a growing shift away from program and project aid – typically managed or overseen directly by the contributing development partner – to budget support where aid is channeled directly through the developing country treasury’s consolidated revenue fund account. As one might expect, as a consequence of this growing shift to budget support there has been a corresponding increase in donor focus on the performance of Public Finance Management in the countries that receive budget support. This is as should be, given the increased real or perceived fiduciary risks associated with the use of country systems to manage the hard earned taxes of the citizens of development partner countries.But this is only one side of the story. Unfortunately there is not yet that much interest or appreciation in the other side of the story. On the other side of the story are the citizens of the developing countries who may suffer as a consequence of tinkering with Public Finance Management systems in the name of reform, which may only serve to undermine current weak systems and set them back even further. Public Finance Management seems inaccessible to most of us. Even where it is accessible to us we deem it to be boring, inconsequential and something only dreary accountants and auditors need bother about. But think, Public Finance Management is about our money, it is about our children’s future, it is about our development.
The importance of Public Finance Management and its reform derives as a consequence of its direct role in implementing policy – be it about improving education, achieving better health care, promoting tourism, or increasing agricultural yields. With weak Public Finance Management systems, even where policy makers come up with sound policy, it may not be possible to implement such policy effectively. Further, quite uniquely Public Finance Management performance affects the performance of all other sectors – yes the macroeconomic environment and so private sector opportunity and the service delivery in agriculture, health, education, transport, energy, public safety and the list goes on. When it works, all other sectors have a chance of succeeding; but when Public Finance Management fails all other sectors fail.We as citizens of developing countries ought to be more concerned about who drives the agenda for Public Finance Management reform. Is it the IMF, as it imposes Public Finance Management Reform conditionalities that are not just tied to strengthening or improving budgetary systems, but are tied specifically to the adoption of particular reform approaches – despite such approaches having in some instances failed in more than one country. Is it the World Bank as it makes the adoption of integrated financial management information systems (IFMIS) the basis for support in reforming the Public Finance Management systems? Or is it the result of wide internal debate and consideration by the country citizenry influencing their elected leaders to address the basic things that they know do not work using approaches that are within the reach of our capacity rather than adopt reform methods that may not yet be appropriate to our circumstances?This donor interest in improving Public Finance Management performance has led to immense pressure on countries to adopt new public management approaches. These have included (1) medium term expenditure frameworks (MTEF) often pushed to be implemented long before a country may have developed the capacity to make credible their annual budgets and even as developing partners themselves continue to struggle with their capability to disburse funds predictably in-year, more so as measured in a medium term perspective; or (2) the use of policy based budgeting such as program and activity based budgeting long before they have the institutional capacity to effectively coordinate programs, develop the fiscal space for meaningful policy consideration, or access the monitoring data to properly evaluate policy outcomes; or (3) the adoption of integrated financial management information systems (IFMIS) to manage expenditure which occurs across as many as thousands of spending units many of which still struggle with issues of staff retention, electricity supply or integration into a national financial administrative network. The challenges of managing at the level of spending units under an IFMIS implementation has led to a roll out strategy limited to treasuries (payment centres). Control over payments is often too late to impact on the accrual of expenditure arrears which can have important detrimental macroeconomic stability impacts; or (4) full accrual accounting even as financial reports based upon a cash accounting standard are not comprehensive, show signs of low data integrity and are issued late. A review of country experience across many developing countries who have adopted the new program management approaches in their Public Finance management reforms shows that these efforts have often not been successful by any reasonable measure.The primary reason for this widespread Public Finance Management reform failure is often attributed to political economy considerations by developing partners – poor governance, high levels of corruption and the like. Of course that is part of the equation, but in contrast it is striking that there are cases of dramatic success of particular elements of Public Finance Management reform in such areas as debt management, certain aspects of revenue administration and public procurement in even what are considered the most corrupt developing countries. Is the political economy focus just another way of suggesting that the poor success record of many of these new public management approaches is solely the responsibility of the developing countries and has little to do with the immense influence that the donor community has had over in setting the Public Finance Management reform agenda?Clearly, it is time to recognise that considerations of the different sides of the question as to what reform methods to adopt or whether Public Finance Management is, or should be, driven principally by the disbursement conditionalities set by donors; or arrived at through much wider debate and careful consideration by the citizenry and leadership of developing countries might lead to quite different conclusions. The consequence of wider discussion between developing country actors could lead to a more balanced, realistic, relevant and ultimately effective approach to Public Finance Management reform in developing countries.copyright by idilmat ltd, http://www.idilmat.com

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Reasons Other Than to Make Money in Network Marketing

The desire to be recognized is one of the greatest motivators for people who join the network marketing profession. (Fact: Network marketing is not a industry it is a profession.) It is also a method of distribution.When work is a grind and people get no public recognition,they will look for something that is more exciting. Network marketing is often the answer because this profession makes a huge fuss over its people, all the time. And why not? People build businesses,and smart network marketing executives no it. That’s why Mary Kay Ash wraps furs around the shoulders of her cosmetic selling representatives and gives them pink cars to drive. Its why network marketing companies organize annual conventions; so they can praise their distributors and bring them on stage to publicly acknowledge their accomplishments. And the people love it, perhaps most people are starved for this kind of attention.People also join this profession, because of the personalities of the people who make up the profession. Spend an evening with a bunch of network marketers, and you’ll be amazed by their positive attitudes, friendliness, and willingness to help each other.They don’t keep secrets from their colleagues. if they find a solution to a problem, they want everyone to take advantage of it. Color, creed, gender, education, and seniority are issues network marketers leave behind at other previous jobs.Personal development is another motivator for people drawn to network marketing.Often,people are so beat down by jobs, employers, coworkers, commuting and the need to get ahead that they lose self esteem. Then their attitude takes a nose dive, possibly followed by their health. Sooner or later, some of these folks look at themselves in a mirror and ask; why? That’s when the right network marketing company can rescue them. Most companies, through weekly telephone conference calls, regional and annual, video and audio, and workbooks, encourage their distributors to work on themselves harder than they work on their businesses. People with high self esteem usually don’t struggle as networkers. In fact they’re very good at it. And the more successful they become the better they become at it.People get involved in network marketing for many reasons other than money, and at first that amazed me.I thought everyone would be motivated by the money, but a lot of people are attracted to the recognition. Imagine someone who has gone to work everyday for years, grinding it out and never getting any recognition, not even a pat on the back. as soon as they join a network marketing company and get a little success, they go to a meeting with hundreds of people, and they’re asked to stand up so that everyone can cheer for them. That puts fuel in the boiler! They can’t wait to get out there and do something so they can get recognized for it again.Although people may think that their getting into network marketing for the money, a friend of mine, David Arcangelo, a former network marketer disagrees. Really they’re attracted to the people. As a Network marketer, you get a chance to teach other people and watch them succeed, and most people relish that opportunity. If things work out, you may even earn a tremendous amount of money. David was never a full time network marketer, he dabbled in the profession just for the fun of it, and because I like the people, he explains. That fun led to a downline of 7,000 networkers, and even after David stopped actively working in the business, his commission checks continued to increase.How could this happen? he didn’t work and he still got paid? And he got paid more? Yes! It’s called residual income. It’s one of the greatest benefits of network marketing.Another major bonus in network marketing is the ability to set your own hours and to work around your families schedule.The desire to be recognized is one of the greatest motivators for people who join the network marketing profession. (Fact: Network marketing is not a industry it is a profession.) It is also a method of distribution. http://www.dsa.orgWhen work is a grind and people get no public recognition,they will look for something that is more exciting. Network marketing is often the answer because this profession makes a huge fuss over its people, all the time. And why not? People build businesses, and smart network marketing executives no it. That’s why Mary Kay Ash wraps furs around the shoulders of her cosmetic selling representatives and gives them pink cars to drive. Its why network marketing companies organize annual conventions; so they can praise their distributors and bring them on stage to publicly acknowledge their accomplishments. And the people love it, perhaps most people are starved for this kind of attention.People also join this profession, because of the personalities of the people who make up the profession. Spend an evening with a bunch of network marketers, and you’ll be amazed by their positive attitudes, friendliness, and willingness to help each other. They don’t keep secrets from their colleagues. if they find a solution to a problem, they want everyone to take advantage of it. Color, creed, gender, education, and seniority are issues network marketers leave behind at other previous jobs.Personal development is another motivator for people drawn to network marketing.Often,people are so beat down by jobs, employers, coworkers, commuting and the need to get ahead that they lose self esteem. Then their attitude takes a nose dive, possibly followed by their health. Sooner or later, some of these folks look at themselves in a mirror and ask; why? That’s when the right network marketing company can rescue them. Most companies, through weekly telephone conference calls, regional and annual, video and audio, and workbooks, encourage their distributors to work on themselves harder than they work on their businesses. People with high self esteem usually don’t struggle as networkers. In fact they’re very good at it. And the more successful they become the better they become at it.People get involved in network marketing for many reasons other than money, and at first that amazed me.I thought everyone would be motivated by the money, but a lot of people are attracted to the recognition. Imagine someone who has gone to work everyday for years, grinding it out and never getting any recognition, not even a pat on the back. as soon as they join a network marketing company and get a little success, they go to a meeting with hundreds of people, and they’re asked to stand up so that everyone can cheer for them. That puts fuel in the boiler! They can’t wait to get out there and do something so they can get recognized for it again.Although people may think that their getting into network marketing for the money, a friend of mine, David Arcangelo, a former network marketer disagrees. Really they,re attracted to the people. As a Network marketer, you get a chance to teach other people and watch them succeed, and most people relish that opportunity. If things work out, you may even earn a tremendous amount of money. David was never a full time network marketer, he dabbled in the profession just for the fun of it, and because I like the people,he explains. That fun led to a downline of 7,000 networkers, and even after David stopped actively working in the business, his commission checks continued to increase.How could this happen? he didn’t work and he still got paid? And he got paid more? Yes! It’s called residual income. It’s one of the greatest benefits of network marketing.Another major bonus in network marketing is the ability to set your own hours and to work around your families schedule.If you could change one thing about your life, what would it be?Max Seale

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Buy Art Online – Art and Modern Trends Are Without Limits

One might well ask how much further can art go in modern trends? It appears that there may well be no limit to it.Not so long ago art meant pictures on canvas, walls, plates or such. Now, however, it can also mean images created by a computer, digital camera or an event. It can incorporate any item we would care to name and virtually any medium we can use to express an idea, an emotion, or a feeling.Art has virtually taken off and even web sites can be described as such. Certainly the goods available through the Internet, such as any form of craft, is definitely within that category. So photos juxtaposed over blankets, shirts, wallpaper, books and so on are within the rangeIt has given artists new challenges as many paint portraits and design canvases from photos. They can turn 2D images into 3D pictures. They can add shadows, shapes, images, and all forms of design over the original to create better impressions that people love to hang on their walls or carry on their person.Some new trends are outstanding enough to warrant special mention. High among these are such things as wallpapers that cover windows but through which one can still see outside. The magnificent scenery in modern art and the techniques used allows one to greatly enhance their environment. The uses for such are enormous as different abodes require different treatment to make them livable..Art has also entered the realm of images that glow in the dark or enhance a room with extraordinary touches of color that serve no other purpose other than to hide a blank wall, tizzy up a dull room or carry a color or shape of a feature piece of furniture. No matter its use art is certainly a greater entertainment medium than in the past.Whatever the occasion there is now art to fulfill virtually every need and the Internet is fast becoming the best place to search for it.

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